Sunday, 9 October 2011

A short history of Orthodoxe Church in the British Islands

“The church in the British Islands will begin to grow, only when it begins to honor her own Saints”
(Saint Arsenios of Paros † 1877).
The orthodoxe Faith, as existed from roughly 37 A.D. and up to the Big Schism in 1054 A.D.

The church of Wales, England, Scotland, Kornoyale, Brittany and Ireland at the 1st millenium of Christianity
The orthodoxe Faith, as existed from roughly 37 A.D. and up to the Big Schism in 1054 A.D.

The first Roman invasion in the Britain began with the arrival of July Caessar 55 B.C. After 90 years of peace, the Britishes rose again, and July Caessar sent army with governor Plotius so that he conquers the recently insurgents Britishes, 43 A.D. The Romen never did not conquer completely the British Islands - while this was not their intention, did not want ensures France (Gaul). The later period of Roman governing in the Britain can be characterized as rather peaceful, with Romen and Roman-British citizens and in retirement officers of army they are shared the administration as a mature and extremely civilized medium-superior social order. Even if the administration was applied with the Latin language, the Celtic language remained sovereign in the all country.

At the delivery of Church, the Christianity was transported by persons of region of Efesos, and had been installed in the British Islands up to 45 A.D. This information is strengthened somehow by the fact that the Church in the British Islands supported that her initial Divine Operation was that of Saint Ioannis, which as we know lived in [Efesos] in his following years. Saint Gildas the Wise man (monk from the Wales, student of Saint Illtyd, † 512 A.D.) supported in his “History” that the Christianity came in the Britain at the last year of Tiverios Ceassar, that is to say 37 A.D.

It has particular interest we mark that the antiquity of British Church had been confirmed indubitably by five Popish sessions: her session Pisa (1409), the session of Konstanti (1417), the session of Sens (1418), the session of Sienna (1424) and the session of Basileia (1413). And this five sessions fixed that the Church in the British Islands is the older Church of national, Although that it would be politically more interest for pοpes him to ignore this fact, since they could have offended France and Spain, that season were inexperiencedly more powerful than England. We appear therefore reason to suppose that the recorded proofs in favor the antiquity of Church in the British Islands should be overwhelmingly many.

Unfortunately, big part of these proofs has been lost, having is destroyed at the dissolution by Errik the 8 monasteries and the scatering and the destruction of their libraries, and then, but also at the duration of Civilian War.
Saint Aristovoulos, one from the Seventy Apostles that are reported in At Loukas Gospel (10: 1), who slept roughly 90 A.D., was, as Bishop Britain, one from the precocious organizers of Christianity in the Celts in Britony and the Britain, according to Dorotheos of Tyros. The orthodoxe Church considers him “Apostle of Britain” and him has given this title. In this (and in other, with him) we owe the beginnings of Church in the British Islands, round the 37-45 A.D.

The newer archeology proposes that the remains of ancienter building of church - that it has been recognized as such with certainty it is dated round 140 A.D. We know also for the existence of domestic Christian ruins of older season, in the South of Britain. Later we find a recording for the leader of department of Southerner Wales-western England of - Saint Lucan, which brought Saint Dyfan (often with the Latin name as Damian) and Saint Fagan (often with the Latin name as Fugatius) in his region, round the 160-180 A.D. Afterwards we have Saint Mydwyn and the Bishop Saint Elvan - and their two Britishes - the same precisely period. Saint Elvan is said that it slept in the city Glastonbury round 195 A.D.

The Roman historian [Tertyllianos] in his text that was written round 208 A.D. reports that the Church in the Britain had reached in regions that still had not been conquered by the Roman Army, something that says to us that the Church had advanced more beyond the Roman possessions and that sure him they considered domestic, as of course they show also the work of Saint Lucan. [Origenis], writing thirty years later, also records the existence of Church in the Britain.

Saint Dyfan († 190 A.D.) is considered the first Christian Witness of British Islands (from where also the name of city Merthyr Dyfan of southernly city Cardiff in the Wales). The first recorded Christian Witnesses in England were: the popular Saint Alban, the Bishop Stefanos of London, the Bishop Sokratis of York, the Bishop Argulius of London, the Bishop [Amfivalos] of LLandaff, the Bishop Nikolaos of Penrhyn, the Bishop Melior of Carlisle, as well as other, during 300-304 A.D.

Konstantinos, his son Konstantinos [A]' (Green) and [Flavia] Helen (according to Saint Amvrosios she was hotel keeper, and according to Chesterton and later historians he was very probably also British) went with his father from Boulogne to York. There, 306 A.D., died his father and Konstantinos were nominated August - leader of Roman Empire - in York. In due time became acquaintance in the History as Imperator Konstantinos Big. Konstantinos, with Licenius they published the said Decree Milan on the recognition of Christianity.

314 A.D. the Bishop of Eborius (York), the Bishop Restitutus of London and the Bishop [Adelfios] of Caerleon and a big escort had assisted in the Session of Arles.
Saint Athanassios declares specifically that the British Church subscribed her acceptance in the decisions of First Oecumenical Session that took place in Nice the 325.
Again, the 359, British Bishops assisted in the Session of Rimini. The archaeological proofs for this period show that the chapels in Lullingstone and Silchester are dated from roughly the 345.

With few reasons, the Church of they were not simply good installed to a great extent British Islands up to this period, but have also himself Saint Ioannis Chrysostomos it testifies that it was also completely Orthodoxe in her teaching. (Chrysostomi Orat. ' Qeos Cristos)
Very at an early date afterwards the arrival of monasticism from Egypt in the Eastern Empire, it was presented also in the British Church and very fast became exceptionally popular. Of course, the British Church from the 5th century and afterwards, was organized in strictly monastic lines - very probably in bigger degree than other departments of Church. Hundreds monasteries and hermitages - small and big - expanded in the all British Islands. The monastic life practiced big attraction in the mystic tendency Celtic thoughtful.

At the duration of 4th century, the Eastern Britain began to suffer raids from [Saxones] pirates. Rome was found in the need to be defended France and the center of Roman Empire from invaders of north. It could not more deal with the provinces of Britain, and when [Alarichos] conquered Rome 410 A.D., the flow of soldiers and governors to the Britain it was interrupted completely. The bigger part of Britain now devolved to local governing, to a great degree according to each Head of Family or “King”.

This brings to us in the period that could comfortably be described as period of Three Dukes (Dux Bellorum), or Generals (that likely brought the Celtic title Pendragon), which were head of various combinations constituted from Celtic Families. First from these was Vortigern, who managed from the central Wales and Gloucester from the 425 roughly and up to the 457. Afterwards Duke Vortigern came Duke Emrys. The columnist Saint Gildas reports that led barracks from the 460 up to the means of decade the 480. It appears that Arthur took the place of that roughly in the means to the end of decade the 480. Columnist-priest Nennus marks that Arthur brought on his Picture of Virgin Maria in the Battle of river Bassas, and a Picture of Crucifixion on three entire days at the duration of his Battle Terms Badon (Castle Liddington) the 516.

At the period of Three Dukes, the Church was profited biggest from the then urban safety. The season of Emrys, the Saint German, bishop of Auxerre, visited the Britain two times, advising them British Bishops to found schools for candidates of ordination, and ensuring the exile minimal remaining of heretics (Pelagians) . He led a Christian army in a bloodless apparently victory against the Piktes and Saxones in the north in 431. It is recorded that he preached very effective in Glastonbury during its second visit in 447. Since that time, monasteries mostly now headed by the Church.

397 Saint Ninian founded the monastery of Whitehorn in the province Galloway and it began to declare in their [Piktes] and their [Saxones]. This, with a abundance from smaller cells of hermits and half-cenobitic monks, signaled the beginning of renewal in the life of Church in the British Islands.
This period, the Church him they managed for the most part the provincial monasteries, where the Abbot managed the Church. To be likely (a big monastery) it had certain Bishops-assistant, that had been given to them the rank of Bishop because recognition of their saint way of their life. The bishop made the ordinations, made the annointments and Consecrated, while the Abbot managed. In little time, the places of Abbot and Managing Bishop began to link themselves. Globally, I prevailed atmosphere she was that of of saint way of life various monastic bishops, abbots and hermits. The monasteries were administrative, educative and missionary centres of Church. From these big monastic centres the Church of British Islands had later - at the first millenium it dispatches her eminent monks in distant parts, as: Germany, Kiev and Scandinavia. We can take a idea of quality of leaders of Church this period, from the following indicative representatives:

Year 400 roughly, the Deacon Calporans of (current) province Cumberland, the same son of Priest, had a son named Patrick. Round the 410, Patrick abducted Irish invaders pirates and took him in Ireland as slave. After six years it escaped and it resorted to France where it entered in monastery and was educated in order to becomes priest. Returned in his family near the region of Solway of Firth round the 426 and became his ordination as Bishop the 432 when it was installed finally in Ireland. Saint Patrick managed as monkof Armagh the next thirty years, founding a lot of monasteries and building the Church of Ireland up to his death ([koimisis]) the 464.

Up to the 450-500 A.D. they existed round the 1000-1500 big monasteries-member, in the Wales and more westwards. That season, the Church of British Islands tended it sees the Patriarchate in Jerusalem as center of Church, since it had been broken away to a great degree from the Church of Rome (if she was never connected). While the teaching of British Church are certified sufficiently as absolutely Orthodoxe (after the sect of [Pelagianismos] did not enjoy despite a transitory popularity in the Britain and that appears had been eliminated completely up to the decade the 420-439), the system of Ecclesiastical administration and the general atmosphere they differed perceptibly from the equivalents of Church of Rome.

Given birth hardly afterwards the change of century, Illtyd became courtier and minister in the Wales. It abandoned that life and become a monk and went to stay at the monastery in Llancarvan under the guidance of the abbot of the monastery, St. Cadoc. Later, Saint Illtyd left from Llancarvan and it went it leads the big Abbey of Llantwit (Llanilltyd) that later it became known as “the house of Saints” because it elected so much a lot of leaders of Church. Saint Illtyd slept 470 his and memory is honoured 6 November.
Saint David (in the local language Dewi Sant) was born early in the 5th century, the Hen Vynyw educated and trained for the priesthood for ten years down the scribe Paulinus . It founded the extremely ascetic Abbey of Menevia. Saint David as Abbot became acquaintance for the work of alms, his extreme asceticism and his habit to make innumerable penitences. The session of Brevi elected him Archbishop and as his seat was fixed Menevia (today Saint. David).

The history says to us that certain of the most powerful leaders of British Church (Saint David, Archbishop of Menevia, Saint Padarn, Bishop of Avranches and Saint Teilo, then Archbishop of Menevia) made obeisance to the Patriarch of Jerusalem in an apparently deliberate preference rather than any other church leaders. It is likely somebodies indeed they had received their rank from the Patriarch of Jerusalem. In the Celtic thoughtful, center of Church it was the place of ministration of Christ. Saint David is said that it had also travelled in other Celtic countries, and we have recorded reports of his presence in Cornwall and Brittany 547-548. His influence was enormous in the all territory of British Islands, and in this was owed big part of conjunction of Church and the maintenance of lot and population in strict discipline. Saint David slept the 601, and his Feast is national feast of Wales, 1 March.
Saint Columcille was given birth the 521 in Gartan. It travelled with certain monks in Iona of Scotland, where it founded the eminent monastery of Iona, on a island on a coast of Atlantic. There it lived, alternately in his [erimitiko] cell and managing the Abbey. It sent his monks to declare in the population. From his Abbot-successor, Saint Adamnan, we have a biography that says to us descriptive for a tall man with very powerful personality, which made marvels at the duration of his life.

Columcille they is the one that built the Monastery of Iona and founded auxiliary monasteries in Hinba, Maglunge and Diuni. Three rescued poems they are attributed in this, included the poem “Altus Prosator” on the subject the other life and the Final Crisis. It gave big attention in the education of nuns, from which certain were veered from their English-[Saxones] invaders of Eastern Britain. Thanks to this veered himself the king of Piktes Bude, and the 574, crowned the king Aiden of Dalriada. Columcille was Bishop with big influence in Scotland and in Ireland, as well as in entire the notherner England, up to the his death ([koimisi]), little before the Mattins, 9 June, 597.

After the Battle of Mount Badon, the British could no longer maintain their territories. The Saxons migrated increasingly from Europe, filling the Saxon coast and moving west. They founded a number of pagan south Basel parties, and northwest of what is now England.

597 A.D. the Patriarchate of Rome decided starts something where it can be described only as ecclesiastical invasion in the British Islands. This took the form of uninvited “mission” that were inaugurated by Saint Augustin in Canterbury, despite the fact that it found the Bishop Liuthard and the church of Saint Martin to exist already there, in Canterbury. The bishop Liuthard had narrow relations with the courtyard of King Ethelbert which can be Christian the himself, however the Queen Bertha she was. Unabashed from it before exists for a long time installed Church in the British Islands, Augustin continued working between not-Christian Saxons intruders that lived in Kent.

Statements that Augustin was Primus of Britain are unreliable, since the Church in the British Islands had already the Primus of Her - successor Saint David, (which slept roughly 20 years before the arrival of Augustin). The church in the British Islands had roughly 120 bishops and many thousands Priests, Monks and Nuns. Augustin tried he protests for the prestige of Priest Grigorios Big, but his efforts they to a great degree did not have success, more beyond the south-eastern corner of island, where he had worked to veer their Saxons intruders.

So that are untied certain differences between the Church in the British Islands and the Roman mission that invaded, was convened session the 664 in Whitby of province Yorkshire, so that is incorporated officially the Celtic Church with the Roman “mission” in a Church, even if the Celtic department continued his own customs, in their own region of Britain. Because this fusion was this modern with big scale change of Anglosaxon intruders of Eastern England, continuing Church was kelt-Anglosaxon in her texture, and it began to engage the character and the two seces. He was a integral department of Orthodoxe Catholic Church, and, since the Papacy that season well-good had not been developed with the significance that today him we know, this Church of British Islands it remained Local Church, inside the oecumenical Orthodoxe Catholic of Church.
Year 666, Saint Theodore of Tarsus, Greek Monk, was named in the Seat of Canterbury. This reached there the 669 in the age the 67 and it began a twenty year old bishopric trying it convinces the British Bishops to accept him for Archbishop. Theodore found Rome opposite with certain from his decisions, obviously in his disagreements with Saint Wilfrid. In the end, while it made many in order to is organized the Church in the British Islands - so much divided from the Session of Whitby - his force extended itself only in the Anglosaxon department of country. Theodore inaugurated line of Holy Sessions, beginning with that of Hertford the 672, where were agreed the eminent ten decisions, parallel in value with the Rules of Session of Chalkidon. The second Session in Hatfield produced a statement of Orthodoxy that was relative with the conflict of Monothelitismos.

In the end of 7th century, Saint Wilfrid, now already Bishop of York, asked from the Patriarch of Rome to intervene in his conflict with Saint Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury.
When the question was placed front Witenagamot (the Royal Parliament), the members (Vice-mayors, Attachés of Feudal lords and Bishops) rejected the decision of Priest. Did Witenagamot say, substantially, “Who is this Priest and what they are his these decisions? Which relation they have these with us, or we with them? ” As answer, they burned the Popish parchment and they put Wilfrid in the prison, because it dared it asks help from a intruder.
The 747, this beginning [xanatethike] as subject - and [ex]' equal blatantly. Had become proposal in Witenagamot are referred the difficult questions in the Bishop of Rome, as first between equal. Witenagamot, however, declared that it would be subjugated only in the jurisdiction of British Archbishop.

The period of said “Heptarchy” was extended from 600 up to roughly the 850 and it owes her name in the supremacy of new kingdoms of Saxons - Kent, Wessex, Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia, Essex and Sussex - that it is said today England. It was not a politically constant period, with continuous fights for supremacy between this kingdoms, that asked help from the any allies could assemble. In the beginning of period, Kent was the absolute souvereign of Essex and Sussex and perhaps the most powerful kingdom in the Britain. However at the 6th century, the kingdom of Northumbria began to be sovereign. Northumbria was constituted by two departments, included the bigger part of modern province Yorkshire. Under the King Edwin, was incorporated the kingdom of Saxons of Berenice, which in the beginning was not Christian. At an early date however it was veered. In the northern department of kingdom Edwin built Edwins Burgh (=Edinburgh) in the Trick of Forth.
The Edwin was killed in battle with the joint armies of pagan kingdom of Mercia and the Christian Kingdom of Wales in 632. The brothers Oswald and Oswy had, at kingdom of Edwin, live in the Monastery of Iona. With the death of Edwin, Oswald led a army of Northumbria against Anglosaxons and became King of Northumbria. 634 Saint Aidan, then invitation of King Oswald, came from the Monastery of Iona, in order to it installs his Seat in Lindisfarne, as Bishop of all Northumbria. Here it founded his monastery, which manned with a team of nuns that came with him from Iona. Oswald was murdered in battle the 642 and later was nominated Saint from the Church.


Before his death, King Penda acknowledged missionaries monks of St. Aidan in Mercia, thus paving the way for the conversion of this kingdom Saxony. His son received the Baptism and married a Christian Princess. For most of the next century the Kingdom of Mercia, who crossed the province area south of the River Humber to the Thames and the borders of Wales to the Gulf Wash, was growing. The supremacy of Mercia culminated the reign of King Offa (757-796).

King Offa is the first King who had the status of any King of England. Dealing with the youngest of European contemporary, the Emperor Charlemagne as an equal, signing him to a trade agreement 796, and recorded that Charlemagne and consider him a prominent commander.
The 850-851 pagan Danish invaders, who had for some time content itself with summer raids, decided to spend the winter in the Isle of Thanet in the south. This was essentially the beginning of the terrible invasion of the Danes, which would give the Church so many martyrs, especially in the year 870. The King Alfred finally defeated the Danes and consolidated his rule, keeping the peace until the Danes xanaepitethikan from France the 892. Eventually he led the victory to them in 896-897.

Offa and Alfred were - rightfully - legislators and scholars, Christian Kings that built a educational system and that in general encouraged the learning and the extension of Church.
Orthodoxy of Church in the British Islands ceased, with the import of popish bishops after the Battle in Hastings in October 1066, where Norman Duke William, financed from the separatist henceforth Papacy, invaded in the Britain.

No comments:

Post a Comment